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In order to reflect actual practice in providing two different degrees of open access, the further distinction between gratis open access and libre open access was added in 2006 by two of the co-drafters of the original BOAI definition.Libre open access is equivalent to the definition of open access in the Budapest Open Access Initiative, the Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing and the Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities.Whilst no official open access logo exists, organizations are free to select the logo style that best supports their visual language. Widespread public access to the World Wide Web in the late 1990s and early 2000s fueled the open access movement, as it provided a very-low-cost method for quickly distributing a large number of copies.Academic articles (as historically seen in paper-based academic journals) have been the main focus of the movement.Reactions of existing publishers to open access journal publishing have ranged from moving with enthusiasm to a new open access business model, to experiments with providing as much free or open access as possible, to active lobbying against open access proposals.There are many publishers that started up as open access publishers, such as PLOS and Bio Med Central.A study of random journals from the citations indexes AHSCI, SCI and SSCI in 2013 came to the result that 88% of the journals were closed access and 12% were open access.
BMC journals or PLOS ONE), there are some journals that apply them per manuscript submitted (e.g.
and other aspects of open access provision and open access publishing.
Access to online content requires Internet access, and this distributional consideration presents physical and sometimes financial barriers to access.
In cases of economic hardship, many journals will waive all or part of the fee, including authors from less developed economies).
Journals charging publication fees normally take various steps to ensure that editors conducting peer review do not know whether authors have requested, or been granted, fee waivers, or to ensure that every paper is approved by an independent editor with no financial stake in the journal.